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Crookes tubes
Radiant matter

The first page
Crookes mineral tube


Crookes Cathode ray deflecting tube.
made by Pressler
Activated tube
               Crookes Maltese Cross tubes
In front a small early (French?) modell with the cross falling backwards, in the back a Pressler tube with the cross falling to the front.
  The Maltese Cross tube (Crookes nr 9)
  This is one of the most famous Crookes tubes.
  The tube demonstrates that electrons go in a straight line
  and don't go through metal. The cross can actually lay
  down and stand up (mechanically). When the cross lies 
  down, the glass face of the tube emits a green glow when
  the electrons strike the glass wall, when it's right up you
  will see the shadow of the cross.
  After a while due to fatigue of the glass the glow is less
  strong, when the cross is tipped over at that time, the
  previous unexposed glass glows brighter than the
  surrounding glass.
  The Cathode ray deflecting tube (Crookes nr 14) 
  demonstrates the influence of a magnetic field on the
  electron beam. The visible beam appears on the 
  aluminum sheet covered with phosphor, will bend away
  from the center when a magnet is held near the tube.
  This phenomena was discovered by Julius Plücker and 
  Johann Wilhelm Hittorf. Plücker published it in the
  Poggendorffs annalen der Physik und Chemie 1858.
  Mineral tubes (Crookes nr 4)
  After Crookes made his first announcement in 1879 he made a second one in 1881
  about the fluorescent and phosphorescent properties of different materials in his (pdf)
  article Discontinuous Phosphorescent Spectra in High Vacua.
  Some minerals glow beautifully due to their fluorescent or phosphorescent behavior
  when the tube is activated, phosphorescent means that the glow still continues for a
  while if the excitation stops. Different samples of fluorescent minerals, shells, coral,
  gemstones but even rubies and diamonds were used. 
  Another research from C.Doelter can be read in this (pdf) German article from 1911.
  And the research of Goldstein on salts in this pdf .

  Here is a list of some common used minerals in Crookes tubes.
  Color                      mineral
  red                          calcite
  yellow                     apatite
  bright green             willemite
  blue                        scheelite
  brown                      dolemite
  violet                       magnesite
Activated sample
 Johann Wilhelm Hittorf
      1824 - 1914


  Look here on                          

  for a great demonstration of
  these tubes by Alastair Wright.
Sir William Crookes (1832-1919)
Crookes paved the way for many discoveries. He worked as a Scientist in his own laboratory in London where he did all of his research and developed a range of different types of high vacuum tubes.
In "On radiant matter",
a lecture to the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Sheffield, Friday August 22 1879.
Crookes demonstrated 19 different tubes and discussed the fourth state of matter, plasma.

Many Crookes tubes stood at the base of further discoveries like the X-ray tube and the Braun tube which developed later on into our well known TV tube.
Look here for a complete publication of William Crookes his work in the New York Times newspaper.
A biography of Crookes can be found here.

Johann Willhelm Hittorf (1824-1914)
A German Physicist who studied in Bonn under Julius Plücker was the
German counterpart of William Crookes. In his early days at the Münster
Academy Hittorf had to made much of his own tools and instruments due
to a lack of availability and limited money of the Academy.  
In this research lab he did extensive research on gas discharges and made
tubes with "absolute vacuum" as early as 1865. He showed them to
Geissler (before his publication in 1869) who replicated and sold these tubes.

Hittorf discovered even before Crookes in 1869 that the rays traveled in a
straight line and that the intensity of the rays gained with a lowering pressure. He also noticed the shadow on the glass wall when there was an obstruction the the path of the ray. Both Crookes and Hittorff were important researchers and shared knowledge on this subject.
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Second
  page
Third
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Making Crookes tubes
The glass tube workshop of A.C. Cossor 1896.
(picture courtesy of Alastair Wright)
  To the left the workshop of Alfred Charles Cossor in
  Clerkenwell London which would later became a
  leading British valve manufacturer.
  This photograph is made in 1896 while some of his
  workers (children!) preparing the glass tubes. Cossor
  was that time the only British firm who could make the
  first X-Ray tubes which were higher qualified than the
  common Crookes tubes and made the first British Braun
  tubes in 1902.
Maltese Cross tube early 20th Century
Notice the difference of Anode connection placement compared to the other models.
Mineral and shell samples light up under influence of Cathode ray's.
Crookes tubes with minerals and shells
made by Pressler


  Crookes mineral egg tube (Crookes nr 4) demonstrate the
  fluorescent behavior of stone and shell minerals or even
  mineral sand. This kind of tubes were made in different sizes.
  Crookes mineral tube
This is an early tube with lime sample from the late 19th century. The mineral is Fluorescent and Phosphorescent.
Fourth
 page
Early maltese cross tube
This tube is made late 19th century with platinum wire connections and blue glass electrode sealings.
Small 15cm mineral tube.

                          Activated tube
The tube is filled with fluorescent and phosphorescent willemite minerals which glow very bright apple green.

Afterglow of the minerals
A similar tube is displayed in the French 1869 Physics book from Dechanel.
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  Sir William Crookes
       1832 -1919
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List of Crookes tubes sold by Queen & Co 1888 after the
demonstration of William Crookes in Sheffield in 1879.
Notice the missing of No.3 which is a mineral tube like No.4 containing a diamond which fluoresced bright green. These kind of expensive mineral tubes were only made on special order. No.20 is the same tube as No.19.  No.10 same as No.9.
The numbers in the catalogues corresponding to the figure drawings in the lecture.
The beam is deflected by use of a magnet